Buying and Selling Currency Pairs: Exploring the World of Forex Trading

Buying and Selling Currency Pairs: Exploring the World of Forex Trading

Forex trading, a powerful tool for financial growth, involves the simultaneous buying and selling of currencies. This dynamic market operates through entities known as “forex brokers” or “CFD providers,” where currencies are paired and traded. These pairs are quoted in relation to each other, establishing exchange rates that constantly fluctuate. In this comprehensive guide, we will delve into the intricacies of forex trading, shedding light on its various aspects and unveiling the fascinating world of currency exchange.

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The Basics of Forex Trading

Imagine the forex market as a tug of war, where each currency pair represents a struggle between two currencies on opposite ends of the rope. An exchange rate is the relative value of two currencies from different countries, and it varies based on the strength of each currency at a given moment. The forex market comprises three main categories of currency pairs: majors, crosses, and exotics.

Major Currency Pairs

list of major currency pairs Buying and Selling Currency Pairs: Exploring the World of Forex Trading

Major currency pairs, often referred to as “majors,” always include the U.S. dollar. These pairs are the most frequently traded and offer numerous trading opportunities due to their consistent price movements. The major currency pairs are as follows:

  • EUR/USD: Eurozone / United States – known as “euro dollar”
  • USD/JPY: United States / Japan – known as “dollar yen”
  • GBP/USD: United Kingdom / United States – known as “pound dollar”
  • USD/CHF: United States / Switzerland – known as “dollar swissy”
  • USD/CAD: United States / Canada – known as “dollar loonie”
  • AUD/USD: Australia / United States – known as “aussie dollar”
  • NZD/USD: New Zealand / United States – known as “kiwi dollar”

These major pairs are highly liquid, reflecting the level of activity in the market. Liquidity is a measure of how frequently traders buy and sell a particular currency pair. The more actively traded a pair is, the higher its liquidity.

Major Cross-Currency Pairs

Cross-currency pairs, also known as “crosses,” involve any two major currencies except the U.S. dollar. These pairs offer additional trading opportunities and liquidity. The most actively traded crosses are derived from the major non-USD currencies, such as EUR, JPY, and GBP.

Euro Crosses

  • EUR/CHF: Eurozone / Switzerland – known as “euro swissy”
  • EUR/GBP: Eurozone / United Kingdom – known as “euro pound”
  • EUR/CAD: Eurozone / Canada – known as “euro loonie”
  • EUR/AUD: Eurozone / Australia – known as “euro aussie”
  • EUR/NZD: Eurozone / New Zealand – known as “euro kiwi”
  • EUR/SEK: Eurozone / Sweden – known as “euro stockie”
  • EUR/NOK: Eurozone / Norway – known as “euro nockie”

Yen Crosses

  • EUR/JPY: Eurozone / Japan – known as “euro yen” or “yuppy”
  • GBP/JPY: United Kingdom / Japan – known as “pound yen” or “guppy”
  • CHF/JPY: Switzerland / Japan – known as “swissy yen”
  • CAD/JPY: Canada / Japan – known as “loonie yen”
  • AUD/JPY: Australia / Japan – known as “aussie yen”
  • NZD/JPY: New Zealand / Japan – known as “kiwi yen”

Pound Crosses

  • GBP/CHF: United Kingdom / Switzerland – known as “pound swissy”
  • GBP/AUD: United Kingdom / Australia – known as “pound aussie”
  • GBP/CAD: United Kingdom / Canada – known as “pound loonie”
  • GBP/NZD: United Kingdom / New Zealand – known as “pound kiwi”

Exotic Currency Pairs

Exotic currency pairs introduce a unique twist to forex trading. These pairs consist of one major currency and one from an emerging market. While less frequently traded than majors and crosses, exotics are highly sensitive to economic and geopolitical events. Some examples of exotic pairs include:

  • USD/BRL: United States / Brazil – known as “dollar real”
  • USD/HKD: United States / Hong Kong
  • USD/SAR: United States / Saudi Arabia – known as “dollar riyal”
  • USD/SGD: United States / Singapore – known as “dollar sing”
  • USD/ZAR: United States / South Africa – known as “dollar rand”

Exploring the Diverse World of Currencies

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These exotic pairs, with spreads often larger than majors, reflect the lower degree of liquidity and heightened sensitivity to events. Did you know that there are 180 legal currencies worldwide, recognized by the United Nations? However, not all are tradable, with forex brokers typically offering up to 70 currency pairs.

In addition to the primary currency categories, there are other groups of currencies worth exploring:

G10 Currencies

The G10 currencies represent the most heavily traded and liquid currencies globally. These currencies include the United States dollar (USD), the euro (EUR), the British pound (GBP), the Japanese yen (JPY), the Australian dollar (AUD), the New Zealand dollar (NZD), the Canadian dollar (CAD), the Swiss franc (CHF), the Norwegian krone (NOK), and the Swedish krona (SEK).

Scandinavian Currencies

The Scandinavian currencies, including the Swedish krona (SEK), the Norwegian krone (NOK), and the Danish krone (DKK), often share similar traits and economic drivers. These currencies are influenced by factors such as oil prices, given the significant role of energy exports in their economies.

Commodity-Linked Currencies

Currencies of countries that are major commodity exporters can be grouped as commodity-linked currencies. These currencies, including the Australian dollar (AUD), the Canadian dollar (CAD), the Brazilian real (BRL), and the Russian ruble (RUB), tend to move in correlation with commodity prices.

Emerging Market Currencies

Emerging market currencies belong to countries with developing economies. These currencies, such as the South African rand (ZAR), the Mexican peso (MXN), the Turkish lira (TRY), and the South Korean won (KRW), can be more volatile and react strongly to political and economic events in their respective regions.

The Driving Forces Behind Forex

The forex market’s complex movements are driven by a multitude of factors, each contributing to the intricate tapestry of currency price dynamics. Here are some of the primary driving forces:

Economic Indicators

Economic indicators, such as GDP (Gross Domestic Product), employment numbers, inflation rates, and manufacturing outputs, provide insights into a country’s economic health. Positive indicators can strengthen a currency, while negative indicators can weaken it.

Interest Rates

A country’s central bank decisions on interest rates significantly impact its currency value. Higher interest rates often lead to an appreciation of the currency, as they attract foreign capital seeking better returns.

Political Stability

Political stability and performance can affect currency value. Currencies of politically stable countries are more attractive to foreign investors, leading to increased demand and potential appreciation.

Market Sentiment

Investor perceptions and market sentiment play a crucial role. Favorable forecasts can drive demand for a currency, while negative outlooks can lead to depreciation.

Geopolitical Events

Unforeseen geopolitical events, such as elections, referendums, and conflicts, can create uncertainty and volatility in the forex market. Traders often seek safe-haven currencies during such times.

Natural Disasters and Crises

Natural disasters and health crises, like earthquakes, hurricanes, and pandemics, can disrupt a country’s economy and weaken its currency.

Market Manipulation

Market manipulation and intervention by central banks or major players can influence currency prices, causing artificial movements.

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The Role of Forex Brokers

Forex brokers, also known as retail forex brokers, serve as intermediaries between individual traders and the forex market. They provide trading platforms that allow traders to execute buy and sell orders and access real-time price charts. Traders can choose between different account types and leverage levels based on their risk preferences and trading strategies.

Embracing the Opportunities

The world of forex trading presents a realm of opportunities for both experienced investors and newcomers. However, success in forex trading requires a solid understanding of market dynamics, risk management strategies, and a continuous willingness to learn and adapt. As with any form of trading, there are risks involved, and careful research and consideration are essential for making informed trading decisions. Whether one’s goal is to diversify an investment portfolio or engage in full-time trading, delving into the diverse and exciting world of forex can be a rewarding endeavor.


  1. What is a currency pair in forex? A currency pair represents the value of one currency relative to another. For example, EUR/USD signifies the Euro’s value against the US Dollar.
  2. What are the major currency pairs? Major currency pairs include the US Dollar and consist of pairs like EUR/USD, USD/JPY, and GBP/USD.
  3. What are currency crosses? Currency crosses are pairs without the US Dollar, such as EUR/GBP and EUR/JPY.
  4. How many currency pairs exist? While hundreds of currencies exist, forex brokers offer around 70 tradable currency pairs.
  5. How do exchange rates influence trading? Exchange rates, influenced by economic indicators and geopolitical events, determine a currency pair’s value.